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Pakistan is a unique land! Situated in the heart of South Asian sub-continent, it is a country with rich history and culture heritage; fascinating in it’s own right. Pakistan was the home to one of the world’s earliest human settlements, the prehistoric Indus Valley Civilization, the crucible of ancient empires, religions and cultures. Strategically situated at the historical cross roads

Pakistan links Southwest Asia with Middle East and Iran in West, and provides an access to the landlocked Afghanistan and Central Asian states. This land is a witness to vicissitudes of history and civilizations with profound effects on its people, their languages and culture.

Pakistan is located between 24 and 37 degrees Latitude and between 61 and 75.5 degrees longitude. China in the North, Afghanistan and Iran in the West and India in the East surround it. Arabian sea lies to its South with 1000 kilometers long coastline with captivating beaches. Karakoram Highway along the great Silk Route links Pakistan with China through land while it is linked with India by air and rail. Afghanistan and Iran are linked with Pakistan by air and Road.

Nature has blessed Pakistan with unique landscape, the high mountains, plateau, plains, deserts and the luring sunny beaches are all found here. However, more than fifty percent of its area is mountainous, particularly its Northern and North Western regions which possess the most fascinating mountains on earth. Magnificent wreckage of continents in collision, fifty millions years ago, an immense island collided with mainland Asia to create the South Asian Sub-Continent and push the Himalayas skyward. The mighty ranges, Karakoram and Himalayas, it passes through Ladakh and Skardu valleys. It turns southwards near Gilgit, separating Hindukush and Himalayas. It flows Southward from Kalabagh and after meandering through the plains of Punjab and Sindh disgorges its waters into the Arabian Sea, near Karachi. It’s four tributaries; Jhelum, Chinab, Ravi and Sutlej Rivers drain the plains of Punjab from East to Southwest before joining the mighty Indus. There are number of small roaring rivers, especially in the mountainous areas, which also drain into the Indus River.

History of Pakistan

Pakistan traces its history back to at least 2500 year before Christ, when a highky developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley area. Excavations at Harrapa, Moenjodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light the evidence of an advanced civilization, existing even in most ancient times. Around 1500 BC the Aryans overwhelmed this region, by and by, influenced the Hindu civilization, whose center moved to the Ganges valley, further to East. Later, the Persians occupied the Northern regions in the 5th century, up to the 2nd century BC. There are several stupas and monasteries of the Gandhara civilization which date back from 6th Century when it formed part of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia (518 BC). The Greeks came in 325 BC under Alexander the Great from Mecedonia. Since then it remained under the successive domination of the Mauryans, the Bactrian Greeks, Scythians, Parthians, Kushanas and Sasanians, till its final destruction by the White Huns in the 5th century AD. In 712 AD the Arabs led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, landed in the Southern coast near Karachi and ruled the lower parts of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this period Islam took to the roots and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the people.

In the tenth Century Ad began the systematic conquest of the South Asian Sub-continent by the Muslims from Central Asia who ruled almost whole of the Sub-continent till 18th Century, when British took over reins and ruled the Sub-continent for almost two hundred years. The Muslims revival began towards the end of the 19th century when Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, a renowned Muslim leader and educationist, launched a movement for the renaissance of the Muslims of the Sub-contient. In 1930, the well-known poet-philosopher Allama Iqbal conceived the Idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Sub-continent. In 1940, All-India Muslim League demanding an independent homeland for the Muslims of India adopted a resolution. After seven year of untiring struggle under the brilliant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as sovereign state on 14th August 1947, when the British India was partitioned into two sovereign states-Pakistan and India.

Political Facts

Pakistan is an Islamic republic with its capital at Islamabad. Pakistan has four provinces; Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa and Balochistan. There respective capitals are Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta. In addition to the provinces, are the federal Administrated Northern Areas which comprises Districts if Skardu, Ganche, Gilgit, Diamer and Ghizer. In addition, there are seven Federal Administrated Tribal Areas. The total area of Pakistan is 796,095 sq.kms, whereas its population is 140 million (approximately). Major cities are, the Karachi, Lahore, Multan, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Peshawar, Quetta and Hyderabad.

The richness of history and cultural heritage, varied landscapes ranging from the warm sea beaches to deserts and alluvial plains, and the natural endowment of the high mountain ranges in the world, makes Pakistan a natural destination for tourists with varied interests.

You may be waiting to learn from the treasures of the archaeological sites, relax at the warm beaches, enjoy the local traditions and hospitality, or the folk lore and dances, trek in the solitude of high mountains or are compelled to climb them; all can be found in one country Pakistan.

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